Historical Perspectives on S-D Logic
The great economic law is this: services are exchanged for services...it is trivial, very commonplace; it is nonetheless, the begining, the middle, and the end of economic science.
- Fredric Bastiat 1848
What is needed is not an interpretation of the utility created by marketing, but a marketing interpretation of the whole process of creating utility.
- Wroe Alderson 1957
The importance of physical products lies not so much in owning them as obtaining the services they render.
- Philip Kotler 1977
Customers do not buy goods or services. They buy offerings which render services, which create value...activities render services, things render services.
- Evert Gummesson 1995
The focus is not on products, but on the consumers' value -creating processes, where value emerges for consumers, and is perceived by them...the focus of marketing is value creation rather than value distribution.
- Christian Gronroos 2000